Position Reference Systems and Shuttle Tank A

The purpose of the course is to give the participants knowledge about HiPAP® hardware components and principles of SSBL (Super Short Base Line) positioning mode, including basic operation of APOS (Acoustic Positioning Operator Station) operator software and handling of transponders, in order to be able to use HiPAP® for DP operations in SSBL mode. Furthermore the purpose is to outline the principles of LBL (Long Base Line) positioning.

The purpose of the course is to give the participants knowledge and understanding of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) systems and use of Fugro differential corrections, including operation and technical knowledge of Kongsberg Seatex DPS systems enabling the participants to apply above during DP operations. This also includes DARPS used in Off Shore loading operations.

The use of lazer based and Radar based, incl. Artemis, systems, are also explained, to give the participant knowledge in the use and the limitations of the systems.


The Position Reference Systems and Shuttle Tank A will give the participants knowledge of the different position reference systems used in the offshore industry. Covering lazer systems, Radar systems, Accoustic, DARPS, Artemis and GNSS. Exercises for GNSS, Radius and Spottrack, is run on live equipment. APOS on PC. Also covering NI requirements,and recognised by same, for Shuttel Tank A Course

The content of the course is:

  • HiPAP® background information
      • Information on typical operations and applications, where hydro acoustic systems are used
  • Surface system components
      • o Explanation of HiPAP® Surface (vessel) Components:
        • Hull unit, Transceiver, Transducer, APOS Operator system, Hoist control, interfaces, network
      • Explanation of requirement for Gyro and VRS input to HiPAP® system
      • Explanation of HiPAP® signal transmitted to DP
  • Subsea system components
      • Explanation of HiPAP® Subsea Components:
        • C-node and FSK transponders
      • Explanation of Battery lifetime – use of Ping count on FSK transponders
      • Explanation of safe handling of transponders
  • Positioning principles
      • Description of Frequency Shift Key principle and Phase Shift Key principle
      • Explanation of positioning principles in SSBL mode
      • Description of positioning principles in LBL mode
  • Factors affecting hydro acoustic positioning
      • Description of Noise, Reflections, Ray bending and transmissions losses
  • APOS system operation using Trainers
      • Explanation of APOS software HMI layout and information available from the system
      • Carry out initialization of system in SSBL mode using different methods
      • Use of ‘max range’, and ‘interrogation interval’
      • Use of sound profile
      • Description and initialization of interface to external systems
      • Use of the Online Help system
  • Basic maintenance
      • Description of Basic maintenance of components and software
      • Carry out light trouble shooting during exercises
    • Principle of GNSS
      • Explanation of the principles behind GNSS positioning systems
      • Explanation of principle of dual frequency use for iono correction
      • Explanation of the space segment
      • Explanation of the User segment
      • Explanation of the control segment
      • Description of Beidou and Gallileo system
  • Errors in GNSS systems
      • Explanation of factors influencing on the quality of the position
      • Explanation of Dilution of Precision (DOP)
    • Principle of Fugro Differential correction service
      • Explanation of Fugro correction service infrastructure
      • Explanation of correction signal distribution (IALA, High Power, UHF and NTRIP)
      • Explanation of Fugro corrections: L1, XP, XP2, G2, G4
  • Principle of SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation Service) corrections
    • Description of WAAS, EGNOS and MSAS systems
  • Seatex DPS systems
  • Explanation of typical Seatex DPS 700 system components, including Fugro demodulators
  • Explanation of Seatex 5D system components, including Fugro demodulators
  • Explanation of DPS HMI
  • Explanation of interfaces to / from DP, Gyro, demodulators
  • Operation of DPS systems, based on DPS 132 or 232 systems
  • Fugro demodulator 3610
      • Explanation of Fugro demodulators HMI
      • Operation of Fugro demodulators
    • DP Operation
      • Explanation and use of software planning systems
      • Explanation and use of available documentation for operational planning
      • Explanation of start and termination of correction signals for short term DP operations
    • General maintenance
      • Description of the NMEA, VBS and RTCM signal format
      • Description of interface protocol in the DPS system
      • Practical exercises in faultfinding in software, hardware, differential interface, antennas and cabling